Requirements for, and Challenges of, On-Wafer mm-Wave Load-Pull: A Perspective

On-wafer load-pull measurements at mm-wave frequencies pose considerable challenges including uncertainty in calibration, power limitations and drift of the measurement hardware, cost of the measurement equipment, and difficulties in presenting optimal source and load impedances to the unmatched transistors. This presentation will provide a thorough review of the challenges of on-wafer mm-wave load-pull measurements with perspectives from US government laboratories, industry from around the world, and world-leading universities.