Advanced Characterization Techniques for mm-Wave Antenna Arrays Using Active Load-Pull and Over-The-Air Verification Using Realistic Modulated Signals

Over-the-air testing is indispensable for characterisation of highly integrated RF and mm-wave arrays, where coaxial reference planes are not available. Moreover, predictive characterisation techniques, such as emulation active load pull of active array elements, add significant advantages during the design phase of such complex active array systems. Using such techniques, multiple cases will be illustrated: load modulated amplifiers, multi-stage differential amplifiers, phased arrays, as well as massive MIMO arrays. Furthermore, over-the-air verification using a mm-wave testbed will be discussed and results presented.