A 90-98-GHz FMCW Radar Transceiver Supporting Broadband Modulation in 65nm CMOS

A 90-98-GHz frequency-modulation-contiguous-wave (FMCW) radar with four transmitters (4TX), four receivers (4RX), a frequency synthesizer and a local oscillator (LO) distribution network is fabricated in 65-nm CMOS. An ultra-wideband mixer without stacking transconductance is proposed to operate across 20-110 GHz. A multi-state cascade topology using magnetically coupled resonator with two resonant peaks is employed for the low noise amplifier and the power amplifier. Measurements show the transmitters deliver a maximum output power of 13.2 dBm with 11.9% efficiency and 1.4 dB flatness across 90-99 GHz. The receivers achieve a conversion gain of 63.4 dB and a minimum single-sideband noise figure of 8.3 dB across 88-98 GHz. The measured phase noise is −93.83 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset. The root-mean-square (rms) frequency error is 9.36 MHz (0.12%) for a sawtooth chirp with 8-GHz chirp-range and 160-MHz/μs chirp-rate. The power consumptions are 210/78 mW for each TX and RX element, respectively.