Practical Noise Figure Measurements: Methods, Limitations and Uncertainties

Modern methods of noise figure measurements have simplified and improved the capability to measure a variety of devices in a variety of configurations, from amplifiers and frequency converters to on-wafer and in-fixture to cryogenic environments. This talk surveys the methods used and describes the basis for the measurements and calibration, limitations and enhancements, and takes a detailed look at measurement uncertainties and verification methods.